2002 Gruber Cosmology Prize Citation

Vera Rubin, Astronomer at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, is preeminent in studying the motions of galaxies. Her pioneering studies of deviations of galaxy motions from classic Hubble theory demonstrated that large scale structure existed in the universe.

Her discovery that most of the universe is unseen dark matter derived from her exploration of the rotation of spiral galaxies.

By example and gentle voice she has championed equal rights and revealed the incredible beauty of the universe.