2014 Gruber Cosmology Prize

By establishing a connection between observations of the nearby universe with the universe on the whole, Jaan Einasto, Kenneth Freeman, R. Brent Tully, and Sidney van den Bergh pioneered Near Field Cosmology—an area of study that helped establish both that the distribution of galaxies is not random but has a definite structure, and that dark matter played a key role in the evolution of that structure.